Political system

Mongolia operates as a parliamentary democracy where pivotal roles are played by the President, Prime Minister, and other Government Ministers. The State Great Khural is the primary parliamentary chamber with 76 members, who are elected via a first past-the-post method. Parliamentary elections occur every four years, with presidential elections taking place the subsequent year.

From the early 1990s onward, the political landscape has been dominated by two major parties: the Mongolian People’s Party (MPP) and the Democratic Party (DP). The MPP, originally known as the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP), was the governing party during the socialist phase. The present-day MPRP emerged as a faction when the original party underwent a name change in 2010.

During the parliamentary elections on June 24, 2020, 76 parliamentary members were elected. The reigning Mongolian People’s Party (MPP) secured a dominant win, garnering 62 seats, a slight decrease from the 65 they achieved in 2016. Even with a loss of three seats, the MPP’s 62-seat possession is undoubtedly a supermajority in a 76-member parliament. The remaining seats were distributed among the Democratic Party (DP – 11 seats), the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP, under the Your Coalition banner – one seat), and the National Labor Party (KhUN, representing the “Right Person Elektorat” coalition – one seat). The last seat was clinched by the ex-Prime Minister N. Altahnkhuyag, who ran as an independent candidate.